Different Types of Standards

There is sometimes confusion when using the term "standards." This is because there are several different types of standards, for example, standards of behavior, instructional standards, standard usage of the English language, technology standards, and so on. In the area of administrator preparation and development, the following examples demonstrate how expectations for administrator Instructional Leadership development and performance are described through various types of standards.

As you review the examples,

  • Look at which standards describe expectations for instructional leadership in administrator learning programs and which standards describe expectations for instructional leader behavior or skills


Professional Leadership Standard - (CPSEL)
Standard 2: Instructional Leadership

Education leaders shape a collaborative culture of teaching and learning informed by professional standards and focused on student and professional growth.


Program Standard - ASC Preliminary
Program Standard 7: Instructional Leadership

The administrative service preparation program addresses the candidate's knowledge of California student academic content and curriculum standards, research-based instructional and assessment practices, and the candidate's ability to assess classroom instruction and provide focused, constructive feedback to teachers. The program develops candidates' knowledge of how to integrate creativity, collaboration, communication and critical thinking skills with the content standards. The program provides multiple opportunities for each candidate to learn, practice, and reflect on instructional leadership as further defined in the adopted Content Expectations and Performance Expectations. (Preliminary Program Standards, Category II, p. 18)


Content Standards/Expectations - ASC Preliminary
Selected Content Expectations: Instructional Leadership

  • B-1. Understand how to advocate, nurture, and sustain a positive culture of learning that emphasizes high expectations and an instructional program that promotes success for all student groups.
  • B-2. Recognize and identify mental health conditions that support or hinder student achievement.
  • B-3. California's K-12 student academic content standards and state-adopted assessment systems for measuring student performance
  • B-13. Barriers to learning such as discriminatory practices, personal and institutional bias and steps to minimize or eliminate these barriers
  • B-14. Knowledge of appropriate, effective college and career readiness and co-curricular activities

(Administrative Services Credential Program Handbook, pp. 39 - 40)


Performance Standard/Expectation - ASC Preliminary
CAPE 5: Promoting Implementation of K-12 Standards, Pedagogical Skills, Effective Instructional Practices and Student Assessments for Content Instruction

The principal is knowledgeable about all of the K-12 student academic content standards and the appropriate pedagogical skills for teaching the content of the standards to K-12 students. As the instructional leader of the school, the principal promotes the use of the state-adopted K-12 standards as the primary basis for classroom instruction and for student assessments. The principal helps teachers, students, parents, and community members understand the K-12 standards and their relationship to accomplishing the school's vision and goals. The principal understands and can articulate principles of effective instruction and appropriate student assessment processes. The principal is also knowledgeable about the state's student assessment program and can explain the assessment program and its intended outcomes to staff, students, parents and the community. The principal identifies and takes action to mitigate potential and actual barriers to student learning. (Preliminary Program Performance Expectations, Category B: Instructional Leadership, p. 46)


Reflection Questions:


  • Which of the examples above could best be used by programs to describe their responsibility to teach and support instructional leadership learning?
  • Which of the examples could best by used by a new administrator to understand expectations for her or his behavior or performance?
  • Which examples could best be used by an induction coach? How might the coach use the standard(s)?


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Updated August 09, 2022