Program Standard 4D: Questions and Answers

What do the CTC Program Standards say about assessing candidate qualifications?

Program Standard: ASC Clear Induction, from Program Handbook, June 2014
1. Program Design & Rationale p. 28Assessment of candidate competence is grounded in the proficiencies expressed in Standard 5 of the Administrative Services Credential Induction Program Standards.
4. Professional Learning p. 29The induction program is a composite of the key intersecting elements of individualized coaching, professional learning opportunities, and assessment of skills, dependent upon the identified needs of each candidate, and chronicled on a common document, the individual induction plan (IIP).
The induction experience is informed by ongoing assessment and is cyclical in nature. Components include initial assessment, goal setting, a plan that incorporates coaching and professional learning opportunities, ongoing formative assessment and reflection, benchmark and summative assessment and reflects a minimum of 60 clock hours and a maximum of 90 clock hours annually.
4A The IIP p. 29In accordance with Education Code 44270.1(a)(3), the IIP identifies individual needs, based on the candidate's assignment and prior professional experiences, including the assessment that occurs at the end of the preliminary program, if available.
4D Assessment p. 30The induction program develops assessments to measure candidate competence and take into account the highly variable nature of administrative responsibilities.
Assessment tools, such as rubric based scales, are based on outcomes from Standard 5 of the Administrative Services Credential Induction Program Standards, identified by the program to measure leadership performance, and used to determine candidate growth and competence.
Initial, formative, and summative assessments are collaborative, based on data gathered by the candidate, coach, and program.
The initial induction assessment is designed to measure a candidate's entry-level competence in each of the program-selected outcomes from Standard 5 of the Administrative Services Credential Induction Program Standards as baseline information that can be compared in future assessments to determine the candidate's growth over time and overall competency.
The initial assessment is informed by multiple measures.
Formative assessment supports and informs candidates about their professional performance and growth as they reflect and improve upon their practice as part of a cycle of inquiry and continuous improvement.
The formative assessment process engages the candidate in gathering evidence about his/her own leadership practice, promotes reflection, documents candidate learning and leadership impact, and identifies next steps in pursuit of IIP goals.
[Formative assessment] utilizes multiple measures such as self-assessment, observation, and analyses of leadership performance
The program conducts a benchmark assessment midway through the program. This evaluates the candidate's progress toward demonstration of competence.
The results of the benchmark assessment are reviewed with the candidate and recorded by the program, with prompt goal and/or IIP revisions, if necessary.

What types of assessments can be used to determine candidate performance in administrator induction programs?

    A variety of assessments can be used in a single induction program. Assessment tools can be both quantitative and qualitative, and refer to both traditional paper-and-pencil tests, as well as to alternative forms of assessment, such as oral examinations, group problem-solving, performances and demonstrations, portfolios, peer observations, or others. Program sponsors may wish to identify assessments that participating districts are already using with their employees so programs and candidates can consider incorporating the same tools or results in induction program design. Examples of the types of possible assessment tools used by the program or district to guide the development of the IIP or assess candidate progress follow.

    Self Reflection
    As candidates move through the program, there will be many opportunities to reflect on progress or activities, either internally, during journaling, or in coaching conversations. This self-reflection can be tied to professional learning, annual requirements, position changes or other significant events in their life. (See an example of reflection questions.)

    360º Feedback
    This multi-source assessment is feedback that comes from members of a candidate's immediate work circle. Often including direct feedback from an employee's subordinates, colleagues, and supervisors, as well as a self-evaluation, it can also include feedback from external sources such as a coach. The candidate then uses the results to help plan future professional development while in the induction program.

    Candidate Observation
    Having the coach observe a candidate completing job tasks (e.g., holding a staff meeting, monitoring a student activity, conducting a parent meeting) provides a unique perspective on a candidate's current level of professional practice. While observing, the coach can document skills, knowledge and/or engagement, for example. A debriefing conversation between the coach and candidate provides a platform for assessing both the areas of strength and areas for possible growth.

    Asset Inventory
    This type of assessment is used to help candidates discover and develop their natural talents. For example, Strengths Finder is an assessment of personality traits using positive psychological prompts, identifying areas where candidates have the greatest potential for building strength by measuring reoccurring patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior. Knowing this information is a starting point, to help leverage one's talents, turning them into sustainable strength.

    Background Knowledge and Experience Survey
    These data would include information about the background of the candidate, for example, school type, work experience, position, community at the school, or interests. The program standards require the use of a candidate's summative assessment from their preliminary program when it is available. The candidate's background knowledge, experience and/or previous performance levels may be used in matching the candidate with a coach and to better understand a starting point for the induction experience. 

How might an induction program organize assessment activities throughout the program?

BeginningMid-PointYear or Program End
Candidate-Coach collaborative assessment of CPSEL performance levelsCandidate-Coach collaborative assessment of CPSEL progressCandidate-Coach collaborative assessment of CPSEL performance levels
Background Information of CandidateReflection and Self AssessmentCandidate Observations w/ summary report
Self-AssessmentCandidate Observations w/ feedback conversations360 Degree Evaluation and Comparative Analysis
Portfolio from Preliminary Program360 Degree EvaluationSummative Leadership Assessment
Initial Leadership Assessment, for example, an Asset InventoryCulminating Assessment Activity, for example, Portfolio Review (including Self-Assessment Summary), Oral Defense of Work, Exit Interview

What are two challenges in assessing candidate performance?

    Two of the basic challenges in candidate assessment center on how to get valid and reliable information that can be fairly used in determining a candidate's performance.
    • Validity of assessment tools and processes
      Validity refers to the extent to which an assessment measures what it claims to measure. Validity is not determined by a single statistic, but by a body of research that demonstrates the relationship between the assessment and the behavior it is intended to measure. For example, it is vital for an induction assessment to yield valid results that can be accurately interpreted and applied to the candidate's professional learning planning and/or the candidate's recommendation for a credential.
    • Reliability among different assessors
      Reliability refers to the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results. Inter-rater reliability is a measure of the degree to which different evaluators agree in their assessment decisions. A high degree of inter-rater reliability is important because evaluators may disagree as to how well certain responses or material demonstrate the candidate's knowledge or skill being assessed. For example, checking inter-rater reliability is important when different judges are evaluating the degree to which portfolios meet certain standards.

How can candidate assessment work with the IIP?

    The Individual Induction Plan (IIP), as outlined in Program Standard 4A, is a working document that guides and chronicles both the coaching and professional learning aspects of the induction program. Throughout the candidate's participation, the IIP reflects examples and measures of candidate competence through the various activities and multiple assessments chosen. When interwoven, the assessment process supports the development of a data-based IIP. The figure below represents the relationship.      


Updated March 14, 2017